XR0Y – Easter Island



“While 3 operators will be running all 3 stations almost 24h a day, the rest of 3 operators will have sufficient time to relax after high pileups and to visit the island entirely. No wonder everyone of us want to meet the island as much as possible. There’s no other place like Rapa Nui in the world!”180px-Orthographic_projection_centred_over_Easter_Island1

“Since Easter Island is a VERY popular tourist destination, our DXpedition requires special planning – regarding logistics and security. Our QTH will be situated out of the only town at the island – Hanga Roa. Our remote location is a perfect as there will be a total lack of any potential TVI/BCI and our little antenna farm will be fully secured from unexpected visitors exposed to RF fields. Moreover – we will be far away from potential low-band noise of industrial origin. In addition, our location will provide a bit better spot with a take off towards Europe than a typical location at Hanga Roa.”

Easter Island (small dot on the Globe Photo – right) is a volcanic high island, consisting mainly of three extinct coalesced volcanoes: Terevaka (altitude 507 metres) forms the bulk of the island. Two other volcanoes, Poike and Rano Kau, form the eastern and southern headlands and give the island its roughly triangular shape. There are numerous lesser cones and other volcanic features, including the crater Rano Raraku, the cinder cone Puna Pau and many volcanic caves including lava tubes. SinglemanPoike used to be an island until volcanic material from Terevaka united it to Easter Island. The island is dominated by hawaiite and basalt flows which are rich in iron and shows affinity with igneous rocks found in Galapagos Islands. The large stone statues, or moai (Photo’s – left & above) for which Easter Island is world-famous, were carved during a relatively short and intense burst of creative and productive megalithic activity. A total of 887 monolithic stone statues have been inventoried on the island and in museum collections. Although often identified as “Easter Island heads“, the statues are actually complete torsos, the figures kneeling on bent knees with their hands over their stomach. Some upright moai have become buried up to their necks by shifting soils.

The period when the statues were produced remains disputed, with estimates ranging from 400 CE to 1500–1700 CE. Almost all (95%) moai were carved out of distinctive, compressed, easily worked volcanic ash or tuff found at a single site inside the extinct volcano Rano Raraku. The native islanders who carved them used only stone hand chisels, mainly basalt toki, which still lie in place all over the quarry. The stone chisels were re-sharpened by chipping off a new edge when dulled. The volcanic stone the moai were carved from was first wet to soften it before sculpting began, then again periodically during the process. While many teams worked on different statues at the same time, a single moai would take a team of five or six men approximately one year to complete. Each statue represents a deceased long-ear chief or important person. Only a quarter of the statues were installed, while nearly half still remain in the quarry at Rano Raraku and the rest elsewhere on the island, Anakenaprobably on their way to final locations. The largest moai is known as “Paro” weighing 82 tons. There are several others close to this size.

Moving the huge statues required a miro manga erua, a Y-shaped sledge with cross pieces, pulled with ropes made from the tough bark of the hau-hau tree, and tied fast around the statue’s neck. Anywhere from 180 to 250 men were required for pulling, depending on the size of the moai. Some 50 of the now standing statues have been re-erected in modern times. The first moai was re-erected on the beach of Anakena in 1958 using traditional methods during an expedition to the island by Thor Heyerdahl. (Photo right– Aeriel view of Easter Island from Space ‘ISS’)

Logs plan to be uploaded once a day around local midnight or morning hours (so approx. 6.00 or 12 UTC hours). Detailed Qsl information can also be found on the website at http://rapanui2009.org/ .

High on my ”IOTA Wanted” list, I wish all the team a safe journey and look forward to hearing them from Easter Island!


73 de Charles…

P29 team good to go!



PNG is ranked 91st most wanted in CDXC Clublog! … which puts it up with Willis and Palestine!! The three Islands however are claimed by less that 10% of IOTA chasers. Whatever the case, big pile ups are anticipated fPacific_beachor sure so let’s hope propagation favours the UK (particularly the North for a change!). Operating times are expected to be around 18 hours per day (1600 – 0800 PNG time) on 160 through 15 metres with the possibility of additional activity on 12 and 10 metres, again dependent on conditions. Should anything untoward occur (bearing in mind the Earthquakes and Tsunami of recent weeks), then the operation will take place from Papua New Guinea mainland only, (IOTA OC-034).

The plans are to have four stations qrv, mainly CW and SSB although I understand that maybe RTTY will also be used. TX’s include an Elecraft K3, Yaesu FT-450 (CDXC loaned Rig), ICOM IC-706 Mk ll and a Kenwood TS-2000. They plan to have 3 amplifiers, one each for CW and SSB and another with mode allocation to be decided on site. Antennas will comprise of single band vertical dipoles for 15, 17, 20 and 30 metres, a loaded ground plane for 40M, an inverted L for 160 and 80 metres and a Butternut HF6V with 17m and 12m extensions.

Finally – the cost. Overall Budget is around $40,000 USD with team members contributing all of their personal costs. That includes their airfares, accommodation and the boat charter. They will also contribute towards the overall fuel and logistics. The DXpedition has a website with a Paypal donation facility through which donations would be gratefully received.

Good luck to all the team, I hope to hear and work you if possible from all locations. Thanks also to the group for the use of the photos on this page and for putting these intended Islands on the Air. Anyone wishing further information, or to make a donation towards the cost of the trip, please see their website at http://www.425dxn.org/dxped/p29_2009/

73 de Charles….

International Reply Coupons – a reminder!



The current International Reply Coupons expire at the end of 2009. This isn’t new news but a reminder is always helpful. Postage can be costly and despite expecting ‘ham spirit’ in the hobby, you can guarantee some of the unscrupulous ‘colleagues’ will try and offload any expired coupons they have, on the unsuspecting Manager to whom they send them. For those of you who have not been involved with using these ‘IRC’s’ in the past, let me try and describe a little more about them.

The IRC is a postal product which is exchangeable for one or more postage stamps. The stamps would be to the value of the minimum postage for an ordinary priority letter for most post-mail items or, for an ordinary air-mail letter sent abroad. IRC’s were first issued in 1907 and 2.2 million coupons are used each year for various aspects.beijing2 The main users seem to be of course us, the  Radio Amateurs who exchange Qsl cards and also Students. Students use them for exchanging correspondence with regards to their academic studies between the Universities and other teaching/learning institutions.

The current issue (called the ‘Beijing 2’ – Photo: Right) can be exchanged up to the 31st December 2009 but will cease to be sold from the 31st August 2009. The new IRC (called the ‘Nairobi’ model – Photo top left) went on sale on the 1st July 2009 and is valid for exchange until 31ST December 2013.

So, to summarise – take steps and try to get rid of all your ‘Beijing 2’ International Reply Coupons asap and in any event certainly before the end of the year. If you don’t, then you could end up seriously out of pocket!

73 de Charles

Good views of International Space Station…



STS-128 Commander Rick Sturckow was joined on the mission by Pilot Kevin Ford, Mission Specialists Pat Forrester, Jose Hernandez, Danny Olivas and European Space Agency astronaut Christer Fuglesang. NASA astronaut Nicole Stott flew to the complex aboard Discovery to begin a nearly three-month mission as a station resident, replacing Tim Kopra, who returned home on Discovery.

Shuttle_JumboWeather concerns prevented the crew from returning to NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, the primary end-of-mission landing site. In 7-10 days, Discovery will be transported approximately 2,500 miles from California to Florida on the back of a modified 747 jumbo jet. Once at Kennedy, Discovery will be separated from the aircraft to begin processing for its next flight, targeted for March 2010.

A welcome ceremony for the crew’s return to Houston was held yesterday at Ellington Field’s NASA Hangar.

In addition to carrying a new station crew member, Discovery and the crew also delivered a new sleeping compartment, an air purification system and a treadmill named after comedian Stephen Colbert. The mission included three spacewalks that replaced experiments outside the European Space Agency’s Columbus laboratory and an empty ammonia storage tank. Ammonia is needed to move excess heat from inside the station to the radiators located outside.

Disney’s toy astronaut Buzz Lightyear also returned from the space station aboard Discovery. He flew to the station in May 2008 on shuttle Discovery’s STS-124 mission Buzz_Lightyearand served as the longest tenured “crew member” in space. While on the station, Buzz supported NASA’s education outreach by creating a series of online educational outreach programs.

Advances in the fight against food poisoning, new methods for delivering medicine to cancer cells, and better materials for future spacecraft are among the results just published in a NASA report detailing scientific research accomplishments made aboard the International Space Station during its first eight years. The results include more than 100 science experiments, ranging from bone studies to materials research

NASA’s research activities on the space station span several scientific areas, including exploration technology development; microgravity research in the physical and biological sciences; human physiology research; Earth science; and education. The report details 22 different technology demonstrations; 33 physical science experiments; 27 biological experiments; 32 experiments focused on the human body; Earth observations and educational activities. In addition to science important to long-duration human spaceflights, most findings also offer new understanding of methods or applications relevant to life on Earth.

Keep your eye out for the ISS now we approach Winter. Early darkness means we will see more of the Station than through the summer although since the ISS nears completion, reports are common of it being visible during daylight (approaching dusk) in recent months. This final photo shows a view of Heathrow Airport, London, taken by the ISS Crew in a recent pass over the Capital.


73 de Charles

First GFF Awards issued…



I am please to announce that the first GFF Awards have now been dispatched. Along with several thousand Qsl Cards, the Awards arrived from the Printer yesterday. Late last night the first 8 of the certificates were completed, (2 x level III Bronze, 2 x level II Silver and 4 x level I  Gold Awards). The first applicant for all 3 levels was Gino – ON3SSB, (Photo left) well done!!

News • WFF Award Committee announced this week that it’s 600th award in WFF series had been issued. More than 50% of these awards were a direct result of being applied for via the EW4DX LogSearch system. More than 20 DXCC Countries had also applied for the various WFF 100 HR Plaques and 100% of these had applied via the LogSearch system.

WFF LogSearch service (http://ew4dx.org/WFFsearch.html) started on April 1st 2009 by Igor EW4DX. Now, through the LogSearch system it is possible to create an Award Certificate request (GCR list & email) within 1-2 minutes without difficulty. As well as being able to apply for the WFF awards or WFF HR Plaques, you can now also claim ‘domestic’ FF Awards this way including CTFF, IFF, RFF and of course us in GFF! (more to be added with available time).

What the system does is to continually upload logs from WFF Dxpedition areas and teststores them. All you have to do is to enter your (or any) callsign into the system and within seconds it will tell you how many areas you have worked (and/or are verified). It produces them in the form of an excel sheet which is seen in the example here to the right. GCR2The smaller table (to the right of them both) actually informs you of which Award you have currently achieved and is displayed in ‘red’. If you wish to claim the Award then all you have to do is to click on the ‘red’ coloured text and it will produce the standard ‘GCR List’ leaving you nothing to do. If that wasn’t good enough, at the same time it sends a copy of the GCR list to the appropriate Award Manager which informs him of the pending application. All you have to do is to make the appropriate payment. ‘Where do I find out how much they cost?’ you are asking! Well, at the same time as the Award Manager GFF_Logois sent a GCR List, you yourself will receive the same GCR list in your email box and in the message, all the details of cost and who/how you need to make your payment to – ‘simples’ as the ‘Meerkats’ say!

At present time the EW4DX service has more than 500 WFF eLogs from all continents of the world, and the total number of contacts are in excess of 800.000 QSO’s. Well done Igor, keep up the FB work!

Try your callsign in the LogSearch just click here, you may be surprised! For further information on WFF, see the side bar Menu for ‘World Flora Fauna’ and if its the UK you’re after (GFF) then again, see the sidebar Menu. Any questions contact me using the above information.

73 de Charles…..

My Damage




The Storm – January 2007


Winds in excess of 90mph swept across England and Wales, wreaking havoc on roads and railways over this weekend in January 2007.At the time my antennas were pretty basic and most of the mast i had ‘installed’ was home brew. It consisted of 2 lengths (6M & 4M) of steel scaffold poles, a rotator and a modified 2 element Moseley beam on the stub mast above the rotator. The mast was held secure with 8 steel guy wires and several positions up the body and secured to concrete posts at the opposite ends. It had been secure in very strong winds before and i had no reason to think that it would be any different when the forecast was made of 60MPH winds – how wrong could i be?


It was a strange old morning and having regularly checked on the antenna during the night and early morning, all was good. The mast was solid although the antenna was being tossed about a little in the increasing strength of the wind. Around lunch time i went to the rear garden to check on the antenna and i was concerned.  The worry was that the centre part of the mast had started ‘juddering’ a little. I had never seen this before. The antenna was always being thrown about but never had i seen the mast move atall. For sure, from the howling sound the wind was making, it was definitely far stronger than the forecast had stated. There was nothing i could do anyway, it wasn’t safe to lower it in the garden as the wind would have taken it sidewards and i would have had no control of it whatsoever. I popped back to the shack to collect my camera and when i returned the sky was bare – no mast, no antenna!


I couldn’t believe it. In the space of less then 90 seconds it had gone. i177777589_78924_2There she lay, right across the (new) garage roof belonging to my neighbour. On examination, the steel wires had all snapped and  although the mast had held secure in its wall bracket, it had bent like a piece of plastic at a 90 degree angle, amazing! The antenna was itself not too badly damaged although a couple of the elements were like bananas, other than that all in reasonable order and not damaged beyond repair at all. In fact the antenna went back in to service soon afterwards and worked very well given the condition.


The photographs give a good idea of the damage sustained and in the weeks following the storm, the mast and antenna were replaced with more substantial gear and thats what remains today as the main station at my QTH. Lessons learned? Of course. It was the first time we had manufactured a mast and to be fair, it had done a good job for many years, maybe a little complacent? I had no reason to think it would fail as it had stood in the winds of that speed before, (the forecasted speed!). It was no surprise to find in the days that followed that the winds were well in front of their predicted speeds.


We all suffered that day, I wasn’t the only amateur in trouble. Reports that other stations in the UK had been hit sustaining far more expensive damage. To put it into prospective though, no one was injured here, that couldn’t be said for other areas of the country where several people lost their lives and destruction and devastation was widespread. Here is a summary of just some of the incidents that happened over that terrible 24hours in January 2007.Up to nine people were killed Four adults and three children as the severe storms battered the UK. There was i177813615_91494_2transport chaos and damage which would run to millions of pounds. Locally to me  The M1 and M18 motorways in South Yorkshire were closed after dozens of lorries were blown over.  Most of the fatalities that day  were caused by falling trees, collapsing walls or vehicles crashing in high winds. Two other people died in Cheshire, two in Greater Manchester, one in North Yorkshire, one in Berkshire, one in Shropshire and one in Humberside.


Gusts of up to 99mph have seen flights cancelled, rail speed restrictions enforced and sections of other motorways also shut. Among the deaths thought to be linked to the weather was that of a two-year-old boy who was killed in Belsize Park, north London, when a 2 metre-high wall collapsed on him as he walked down a road. One man was killed after being blown into metal shutters in an industrial area of Strangeways, Manchester.


An elderly man in the Wirral, Merseyside, died of a suspected heart attack while working outside on a fence in the stormy weather. i177799616_13226_2Two schoolboys in Merseyside were badly injured after being crushed under trees. There were heavy downpours too and winds there reached 90mph across many parts of the country brought  heavy snowfall in northern areas. Roads, rail services, airports and ferry crossings were all affected, A major rescue operation was launched after the crew of a sinking British cargo ship abandoned the vessel around 50 miles off the Lizard, in Cornwall. All 26 crew left the listing MS Napoli, which had a hole in one side and a flooded engine, in a lifeboat. They were later winched aboard a rescue helicopter. A woman was crushed to death in Marple, near Stockport, Greater Manchester, when a wall collapsed on top of her. There were two deaths in neighbouring Cheshire, where it was thought that a man who was declared dead at Leighton hospital had been hit by a falling tree, police said. A male lorry driver was also killed when another vehicle was blown into the lorry’s path on the A55, near the Forte Posthouse hotel in Chester. i177757872_25588_2Another lorry driver was killed in North Yorkshire when his vehicle left the road and overturned in high winds on the A629 Skipton western bypass. In the Midlands, the managing director of Birmingham airport, Richard Heard, 54, was killed on his way to work when a large branch smashed into his car windscreen on the B4373 near Bridgnorth, Shropshire, at 5.45am. Further south, in Streatley, west Berkshire, a passenger in a Ford Fiesta died shortly after midday when a tree fell on to the car, police said. British Airways cancelled 130 flights on domestic and short-haul routes in and out of Heathrow and Manchester airports. At the main line station at London Bridge, part of the forecourt roof collapsed. There were no injuries but part of the main concourse was blocked, disrupting services. The Met Office warned that the severe conditions had disrupted travel across the UK for most the day, while the Environment Agency issued 36 flood warnings for England and Wales. Peak gusts of 99mph were recorded on the Isle of Wight. Forecasters said other gusts could hit 80mph on high ground and in coastal areas, and up to 70mph across the rest of the UK…..(too late now!) Channel crossings, the M25 Dartford bridge and the M2, M6 and M20 motorways were all hit by the stormy weather, police said. Scottish Power said around 30,000 homes were without electricity in Cheshire and mid and north Wales. The gales led to the port of Dover being closed to ships. P&O Ferries, which operates services between the Kent port and Calais, advised passengers due to sail not to travel at all. In Scotland, the A9 was shut after storms brought the first major snowfall of the year and two lorries jackknifed between Dalwhinnie and Blair Atholl in the Highlands. Snow also fell on the Pennines stretch of the M62 in Yorkshire.


73 de Charles….







An Ulsterman on the air in Chile



I bought my first rig a TS130 and got on the air with a dipole.  In came stations from all over the globe though mainly from USA.  I made some good friends on the air and one of them, Keith G4RZQ, became my QSL manager.  I also acquired an Elmer in the form of Dick CE3DWL, an American also living in Santiago.  Nightly he transmitted to me in CW on 10 metres as I prepared for my UK radio examinations.  The problem being that the UK did not recognise the Chilean licence so it meant taking my City and Guilds in the British Council in Santiago – specially sent out to me and later my morse test at the coastgards in Southampton.

By 1983 the economic situation was becoming difficult in Chile so we left to come back to the UK and I looked for a new job.  Shortly afterwards I obtained a lecturing post in Malaysia and off we set again this time with a TS430 and a TET triband antenna in the luggage.  I had also picked up a UK licence G4VHO.  We soon made contacts in Malaysia (Photo’s above & right) and through them Linda and I were able to obtain local licences – I became 9M2DC (my initials) and Linda was 9M2LA.  Some local lads helped me put up the antenna and I was on the air.  I was soon building up QSOs but where were my QSL cards.  I contacted 9M2SS Sangat who was the President of MARTS and he took me into a room in his house which was stacked high with cards.  There was no one to sort them out.  Well the only way Linda_9M2LA_on_the_air_copyto get my cards was to sort the whole lot out so we made several trips by car and brought all the cards back to our house. Over a month I had them all stacked on the floor in piles – there were about 70 amateurs in Malaysia at the time – no one in 9M6 and only later one in 9M8 – 9M8EN.  I soon got to know all the active members and have fond memories of 9M2DW (Two Dancing Witches), 9M2CO Adrian – very active, 9M2FZ Leong and my lifetime friend 9M2BB whom we still affectionately call Two Bravo Bravo – now living in VK.  I made about 5000 contacts in Malaysia and sent out endless packets of cards monthly wrapping them in plastic bags from the local supermarket to protect them from the tropical rain.  In 1986 I ended my contract in 9M2 and we returned to the UK.

By now teaching jobs were getting more difficult to get and the XYL made it clear that she did not fancy three years in South Sudan even though the callsign would have been exotic.  So I retrained as a solicitor and took a teaching post at the University of Glamorgan near Cardiff.  Up went the TET tribander with the help of my friend Ron VK7RN visiting us from Tasmania and I was back on the air as GW4VHO. However my days as a ham were to be limited as my neighbour complained of TVI.  Unable to resolve it to his satisfaction I gave up the hobby for the next 15 years.

In 2006 I had reached retirement age and Linda and I agreed that we wanted to move abroad again.  After visits to different parts of Spain we finally settled on Northern Chile as the best place to set up home.  We returned in late 2006 sailing out on a container ship a journey of 46 days.  Shortly after our arrival we joined the local radio club and within six months I had recovered my licence.  I was back on the air as CE2EYN still with my TS430S and TET tribander.

In September 2008 I was invited to join the Atacama DX group and in ANTOFA_051October I was off to Bahia Inglesa (English Bay) with the group to operate CE1W in the CQWW contest.  We made 4000 QSOs over the weekend helped with Chilean wine of course.  The group will activate CE1W again this year.  I also help out the local radio club in contests – we usually operate as CE2LS and the club has a good record in contests. In December I applied to Telecomunicaciones in Santiago to change my licence for a 2 letter call.  This involved providing evidence of publications – luckily I had written an article some years ago in Practical Wireless – and at least 25 years operation as a ham.  The application was processed quickly and when we rang Santiago to ask on its progress we were advised that I had been granted the callsign CE2WZ which was much better for contest work.

As for the future I hope to be able to pension off the TS430S soon and replace it with something newer.  I have been working on my CW and hope to get on the air in that mode soon.   My favourite band is 10 metres CE2WZand I have been considering joining 10-10 International.  I just love it when 10 metres opens up and I can make QSOs to Europe and North America.

So if you hear me please give me a call particularly if it is on 10 metres. I qsl via LOTW and/or via M0OXO (M3ZYZ Qrz.com) and it would be my pleasure to both send you and receive your Qsl Card in return.

73 & regards,






(On-line Qsl Request Service)

For DIRECT QSL Requests please complete the form below and once submitted,

the card has been prepared and sent to the

Bureau, usually within 48 hours.

For BUREAU QSL Requests please complete the form below and once submitted,

the card has been prepared and sent to the

Bureau, usually within 14 days.

For MORE THAN ONE Qsl Requests then copy and paste the details

into the form found here.

******Once the QSL Request Form has been sent then

please go to for Direct QSL Payment ******


{ FacileForms : QSL_Request_form, 1, 0, }
If you find this facility of use, please leave a comment here – Thanks, Charles

GFF (England) Area list



Below is the list for ‘GFF’ up to and including :-     07/09/2011



**Areas shown in BLUE are ‘most recent activation by’
**Areas NOT shown in BLUE are ‘not yet activated’

England GFF-001 New one Brecon Beacons *now GWFF-073
England GFF-002 New one
England GFF-003 Chalk Sound
England GFF-004 Dartmoor
England GFF-005 East Bay Islands
England GFF-006 Exmoor
England GFF-007 Grand Turk Cays, Land and Sea
England GFF-008 Lake District (G4OBK) (M6ONL)
England GFF-009 New one
England GFF-010 New Forest (M6ADB)
England GFF-011 North West Point Marine
England GFF-012 North York Moors (G4OBK) ((M6ADB)
England GFF-013 Northumberland (GB1TAN/M0OXO)
England GFF-014 Peak District (M0OXO) (G1INK) (G4OBK)
England GFF-015 Pembrokeshire Coast (GB0WFF/M0OXO) (MC0SHL)
England GFF-016 Princess Alexandra Land and Sea
England GFF-017 New one Snowdonia *Now GWFF-074
England GFF-018 South Downs (M6ADB/p several times)
England GFF-019 The Broads (G7SQW)
England GFF-020 Yorkshire Dales (GB1TAN)(G1LAT) (G1INK)
England (Ant. Base) GFF-021 Ferguson Bay Base Camp
England (Ant. Base) GFF-022 Station “Bl” Bird Island Station
England (Ant. Base) GFF-023 Station “M” King Edward Point
England (Ant. Base) GFF-024 Falkland Islands
England (Ant. Base) GFF-025 Husvik, South Georgia isl.
England (Ant. Base) GFF-026 Spenceley Glacier Camp
England (Ant. Base) GFF-027 Grytviken, , South Georgia isl.
England (Ant. Base) GFF-028 SANAP Weather Station
England (Ant. Base) GFF-029 Base «W» Detaille Island
England (Ant. Base) GFF-030 Brabant Station
England (Ant. Base) GFF-031 Smith Base
England (Ant. Base) GFF-032 Station «A» Port Lockroy
England (Ant. Base) GFF-033 Station «B» Deception Island
England (Ant. Base) GFF-034 Station «C» Cape Geddes
England (Ant. Base) GFF-035 Station «D» Hope Bay
England (Ant. Base) GFF-036 Station «E» Stonington Island
England (Ant. Base) GFF-037 Station “F” Faraday (James Wordie House)
England (Ant. Base) GFF-038 Station «F» Faraday Station
England (Ant. Base) GFF-039 Station «G» Admiralty Bay
England (Ant. Base) GFF-040 Station «H» Signy Island
England (Ant. Base) GFF-041 Station «KG» Fossil Bluff
England (Ant. Base) GFF-042 Station «O» Danco Island
England (Ant. Base) GFF-043 Station «R» Rothera
England (Ant. Base) GFF-044 Station «T» Adelaide
England (Ant. Base) GFF-045 Station «Y» Horseshoe Island
England (Ant. Base) GFF-046 Station “Z” Edmond Halley I
England (Ant. Base) GFF-047 Station “Z” Edmond Halley II
England (Ant. Base) GFF-048 Station “Z” Edmond Halley III
England (Ant. Base) GFF-049 Station “Z” Edmond Halley IV
England (Ant. Base) GFF-050 Station “Z” Edmond Halley V
England (Ant. Base) GFF-051 Western Bransfield Strait
England (Ant. Base) GFF-052 Western Shore of Admiralty Bay
England GFF-053 Pitcairn island (include Oeno)
England GFF-054 Henderson island
England GFF-055 Ducie island
England GFF-056 Gordano Valley Avon (G4WSB)
England GFF-057 Barton Hills Bedfordshire
England GFF-058 Chiltern Hills Bedfordshire (M6ADB)
England GFF-059 Kings Wood, Heath & Reach Bedfordshire
England GFF-060 Knocking Hoe Bedfordshire
England GFF-061 The Lodge Bedfordshire
England GFF-062 Leigh Woods Bristol (G4WSB)
England GFF-063 Church Wood Buckinghamshire
England GFF-064 Barnack Hills & Hoes Cambridgeshire
England GFF-065 Bedford Purlieus Cambridgeshire
England GFF-066 Castor Hanglands Cambridgeshire
England GFF-067 Chippenham Fen Cambridgeshire
England GFF-068 Fowlemere Cambridgeshire (M6ONL)
England GFF-069 Holme Fen Cambridgeshire
England GFF-070 Monks Woods Cambridgeshire
England GFF-071 Nene Washes Cambridgeshire (M6ONL)
England GFF-072 Ouse Washes Cambridgeshire (M6ONL)
England GFF-073 Upwood Meadows Cambridgeshire
England GFF-074 Wicken Fen Cambridgeshire (M6ADB/p) (M6ONL)
England GFF-075 Woddwalton Fen Cambridgeshire
England GFF-076 Gayton Sands Cheshire
England GFF-077 Wybunbury Moss Cheshire
England GFF-078 Golitha Falls Cornwall
England GFF-079 Goss Moor Cornwall
England GFF-080 The Lizard Cornwall
England GFF-081 Hayle Estuary Cornwall
England GFF-082 Marazion Marsh Cornwall
England GFF-083 Campfield marsh Cumbria
England GFF-084 Finglandrigg Woods Cumbria
England GFF-085 Haweswater Cumbria (M6ONL)
England GFF-086 Hodbarrow Cumbria
England GFF-087 Hutton Roof Crags Cumbria (G4WSB) (G1LAT)
England GFF-088 Moor House Upper Teesdale (Cumbria)
England GFF-089 St Bees Head Cumbria
England GFF-090 Biggin Dale Derbyshire
England GFF-091 Derbyshire Dales Derbyshire (GB0WFF/M0OXO)
England GFF-092 Aylesbeare Common Devon
England GFF-093 Chapel Wood Devon
England GFF-094 Dawlish Warren Devon
England GFF-095 East Dartmoor Woods & Heaths Devon
England GFF-096 Exe Estuary Devon
England GFF-097 Slapton Ley Devon
England GFF-098 Arne Dorset (G4WSB)
England GFF-099 Ballard Down Dorset (G4WSB)
England GFF-100 Garston Wood Dorset (M6ADB)
England GFF-101 Holt Heath Dorset (G4WSB)
England GFF-102 Lodmoor Dorset (G1OCN)
England GFF-103 Lundy Island Dorset
England GFF-104 Radipole lake Dorset (G1OCN)
England GFF-105 Studland & Godlingston Heath Dorset (G4WSB)
England GFF-106 Castle Eden Dene Durham
England GFF-107 Durham Coast Durham
England GFF-108 Bempton Cliffs East Riding Yorkshire
England GFF-109 Blacktoft Sands East Riding Yorkshire
England GFF-110 Lower Derwent Valley East Riding Yorkshire
England GFF-111 Spurn Point East Riding Yorkshire (M0OXO)
England GFF-112 Fore Wood East Sussex
England GFF-113 Stour Estuary Essex
England GFF-114 Highnam Woods Gloucestershire
England GFF-115 Nagshead Gloucestershire
England GFF-116 Rainham Marshes Greater London
England GFF-117 Ashford Hangers Hampshire (M6ADB/p)
England GFF-118 Ashford Hill Hampshire (M6ADB)
England GFF-119 Beacon Hill Hampshire (M6ADB)
England GFF-120 Butser Hill Hampshire (M6ADB/p)
England GFF-121 Castle Bottom Hampshire (M6ADB/p)
England GFF-122 Kingston Great Common Hampshire (M6ADB)
England GFF-123 Langstone Harbour Hampshire (M6ADB)
England GFF-124 Martin Down Hampshire (M6ADB)
England GFF-125 North Solent Hampshire
England GFF-126 Old Winchester Hill Hampshire (M6ADB)
England GFF-127 Tichhfield Haven Hampshire (M6ADB)
England GFF-128 Rye Meads Hertfordshire (M6ADB)
England GFF-129 Brading Marshes Isle of White
England GFF-130 Barnsfield Pit Kent (M6ONL)
England GFF-131 Blean Woods Kent (M6ONL)
England GFF-132 Cliffe Pools Kent
England GFF-133 Dungeness Kent (M6ONL)
England GFF-134 Elmley Marshes Kent
England GFF-135 Hamstreet Woods Kent
England GFF-136 Lydden & Tempell Ewell Downs Kent (M60NL)
England GFF-137 Nor Marsh & Motney Hill Kent
England GFF-138 Northward Hill Kent
England GFF-139 Stodmarsh Kent
England GFF-140 Tudeley Woods Kent (M6ONL)
England GFF-141 Wye Downs Kent
England GFF-142 Gait Barrows Lancashire (G1LAT/p)
England GFF-143 Leighton Moss Lancashire
England GFF-144 Morecambe bay Lancashire (G1LAT/P)
England GFF-145 Ribble Estaury Lancashire
England GFF-146 Frampton Marsh Lincolnshire
England GFF-147 Freiston Shore Lincolnshire
England GFF-148 Gibralter Point (The Wash) Lincolnshire
England GFF-149 Saltfleetby-Theddlethorpe Dunes Lincolnshire
England GFF-150 Marshside Merseyside
England GFF-151 Ainsdale Sand Dunes Merseyside
England GFF-152 Ant Broads & Marshes Norfolk (G7SQW)
England GFF-153 Brettenham Heath Norfolk (G1UGH)
England GFF-154 Blakeney Point Norfolk
England GFF-155 Bure Marshes Norfolk (G7SQW)
England GFF-156 Berney Marshes & Breydon Water Norfolk
England GFF-157 Calthorpe Broad Norfolk
England GFF-158 Dersingham Bog Norfolk (G7SQW)
England GFF-159 Foxley Wood Norfolk (G7SQW)
England GFF-160 Great Yarmoth Little terns Norfolk
England GFF-161 Holkham Norfolk (G7SQW)
England GFF-162 Redgrave & Lopham Fen Norfolk (G7SQW)
England GFF-163 Roydon Common Norfolk (G7SQW)
England GFF-164 Scolt Head Island Norfolk
England GFF-165 Snettisham Norfolk (G7SQW)
England GFF-166 Strumpshaw Fen Norfolk (G7SQW)
England GFF-167 Swanton Novers Norfolk
England GFF-168 Tichwell Marsh Norfolk (G7SQW)
England GFF-169 Weeting Heath Norfolk (G7SQW)
England GFF-170 Winterton Dunes Norfolk (G7SQW)
England GFF-171 Farne Islands Northumberland (GX4NOK/M0OXO)
England GFF-172 Lindisfarne (Holy Island) Northumberland (GB1HI/GB0HI)
England GFF-173 Duncombe Park North Yorkshire
England GFF-174 Ingleborough North Yorkshire (G4OBK) (G1LAT)
England GFF-175 Aston Rowant Oxfordshire (M6ADB)
England GFF-176 Otmoor Oxfordshire (M6ADB)
England GFF-177 Aqualate Mere Shropshire
England GFF-178 Fens, Whixall & Bettisfield Mosses Shropshire
England GFF-179 Stiperstones Shropshire
England GFF-180 Wyre Forest Shropshire
England GFF-181 Brigwater Bay Somerset (G4WSB)
England GFF-182 Dunkery & Horner Woods Somerset
England GFF-183 Ebbor Gorge Somerset
England GFF-184 Grelake Somerset
England GFF-185 Ham Wall Somerset (G3TJE/p)
England GFF-186 Hardington Moor Somerset
England GFF-187 Huntspill River Somerset (G4WSB)
England GFF-188 Rodney Stoke Somerset (G3TJE/p)
England GFF-189 Shapwick Heath Somerset (G4WSB)
England GFF-190 Somerset levels Somerset
England GFF-191 Westhay Moor Somerset (G4WSB)
England GFF-192 West Sedgemoor Somerset
England GFF-193 Old Moor Dearne Valley South Yorkshire (M0OXO)
England GFF-194 Coombes & Churnet Staffordshire
England GFF-195 Benacre broad Suffolk (G7SQW)
England GFF-196 Bradfield Woods Suffolk (G1UGH)
England GFF-197 Cavenham Heath Suffolk (G1UGH) (M6ADB/P)
England GFF-198 Orfordness/Havergate island Suffolk
England GFF-199 Lakenheath Fen Suffolk (M6ONL)
England GFF-200 Minsmere Suffolk (G7SQW)
England GFF-201 North Warren Suffolk
England GFF-202 Thetford Heath Suffolk (G1UGH)
England GFF-203 Walberswick Suffolk (G7SQW)
England GFF-204 Westleton Heath Suffolk ( G7SQW)
England GFF-205 Wolves Wood Suffolk
England GFF-206 Farnham Heath Surrey (M6ADB/p)
England GFF-207 Thursley Surrey (M6ADB/p)
England GFF-208 Teesmouth Teeside
England GFF-209 Sandwell Valley West Midlands (G0TRB)
England GFF-210 Sutton Park West Midlands (G0TRB)
England GFF-211 Wrens nest West Midlands
England GFF-212 Kingley Vales West Sussex
England GFF-213 Pulborough Brookes West Sussex (M6ADB/p)
England GFF-214 Fairburn Ings West Yorkshire (M0IAA / M0GGR)
England GFF-215 Bredon Hill Worcestershire (M6ADB/p)
England GFF-216 Bolton Ings Dearne Valley South Yorkshire (M0OXO)
England GFF-217 Boyton Marshes Suffolk
England GFF-218 Buckenham Marshes Norfolk (G7SQW)
England GFF-219 Coquet island Northumberland
England GFF-220 Darts Farm Devon
England GFF-221 Dingle Marshes Suffolk
England GFF-222 Fen Drayton Lakes Cambridgeshire
England GFF-223 Geltsdale Cumbria
England GFF-224 Gypsey Marsh Dearne Valley South Yorkshire (M0OXO)
England GFF-225 Parkgate Dee Estuary Cheshire
England GFF-226 Saltholme Teeside
England GFF-227 Vange Marshes Essex
England GFF-228 Wat Tyler Country Park Essex
England GFF-229 Surlingham Norfolk (G7SQW)
England GFF-230 Wombell Ings Dearne Valley South Yorkshire (M0OXO)
England GFF-231 Samphire Hoe Kent (M6ONL)
England GFF-232 Cricklade Nature reserve (G4WSB)
England GFF-233 Whitbarrow Cumbria (G4WSB) (G1LAT)
England GFF-234 Stoborough Heath, Dorset (G4WSB)
England GFF-235 Hartland Moor NR Dorset (G4WSB)
England GFF-236 Lount Nature Reserve Derbyshire (G0TRB)
England GFF-237 Rye Harbour NR
England GFF-238 Romney Marsh NR
England GFF-239 Fyfield Down NR Wiltshire (TBA G4WSB)
England GFF-240 Pwesey Down NR Wiltshire (TBA G4WSB) (M6ADB)
England GFF-241 Parsonage Down NR Wiltshire (TBA G4WSB) (M6ADB)
England GFF-242 Cuerden Valley Park (TBA GX3KUE/p 21/05/2011)


** re- GFF-015 – Pembrokeshire National Park. This area is in DXCC Wales. When WFF
first launched, GFF was all one entity. However, when the decision was made to split in
to G, GM & GW, ‘GFF-015’ had already been activated several times. In view of that and
the fact that Qsl Cards have been already issued/printed the area at this stage will continue to be
used. If you have or in the future do work ‘Pembrokeshire Coast’ be assured ‘GFF-015’ is still valid
for WFF and the DXCC will be Wales.

Any questions email me!

73 de Charles


GFF-001 Brecon Beacons 51°53’N/3°27’W
GFF-002 Cairngorms
GFF-003 Chalk Sound 21°46’N/72°17’W
GFF-004 Dartmoor 50°33’N/3°54’W
GFF-005 East Bay Islands 21°55’N/71°53’W
GFF-006 Exmoor 51°10’N/4°00’W
GFF-007 Grand Turk Cays, Land and Sea 21°23’N/71°06’W
GFF-008 Lake District 54°30’N/3°00’W
GFF-009 Loch Lomond and the Trossachs
GFF-010 New Forest
GFF-011 North West Point Marine 21°51’N/72°20’W
GFF-012 North York Moors 54°22’N/0°52’W
GFF-013 Northumberland 55°16’N/2°13’W
GFF-014 Peak District 53°18’N/1°45’W
GFF-015 Pembrokeshire Coast 51°55’N/4°57’W
GFF-016 Princess Alexandra Land and Sea 21°48’N/72°12’W
GFF-017 Snowdonia 52°54’N/3°49’W
GFF-018 South Downs
GFF-019 The Broads 52°35’N/1°40’E
GFF-020 Yorkshire Dales 54°20’N/1°50’W
GFF-021 Ferguson Bay Base Camp Antarctica Base
GFF-022 Station “Bl” Bird Island Station 54°00’S 38°03’W
GFF-023 Station “M” King Edward Point 54°17 S 36°30 W
GFF-024 Falkland Islands 51°42′S/ 57°51′W
GFF-025 Husvik, South Georgia isl. 54°10′S/36°42′W
GFF-026 Spenceley Glacier Camp Antarctica Base
GFF-027 Grytviken, , South Georgia isl.
GFF-028 SANAP Weather Station Antarctica Base
GFF-029 Base «W» Detaille Island 66°52’S/66°48’W
GFF-030 Brabant Station 64°30’S 64°21’W
GFF-031 Smith Base 62°59’S/62°32’W
GFF-032 Station «A» Port Lockroy 64°49’S/63°30’W
GFF-033 Station «B» Deception Island 62°59’S/60°34’W
GFF-034 Station «C» Cape Geddes 60°41’S 44°34’W
GFF-035 Station «D» Hope Bay 63°24’S 56°59’W
GFF-036 Station «E» Stonington Island 68°11’S/67°00’W
GFF-037 Station “F” Faraday (James Wordie House) 65°15’S/64°16’W
GFF-038 Station «F» Faraday Station 65°15’S/64°16’W
GFF-039 Station «G» Admiralty Bay 62°05’S 58°25’W
GFF-040 Station «H» Signy Island 60°43’S 45°36’W
GFF-041 Station «KG» Fossil Bluff 71°20’S/68°17’W
GFF-042 Station «O» Danco Island 64°44’S/62°36’W
GFF-043 Station «R» Rothera 67°34’S/68°08’W
GFF-044 Station «T» Adelaide 67°46’S/68°55’W
GFF-045 Station «Y» Horseshoe Island 67°49’S/67°18’W
GFF-046 Station “Z” Edmond Halley I 75°30’S 26°36’W
GFF-047 Station “Z” Edmond Halley II 75°31’S 26°39’W
GFF-048 Station “Z” Edmond Halley III 75°31’S 26°43’W
GFF-049 Station “Z” Edmond Halley IV 75°36’S 26°46’W
GFF-050 Station “Z” Edmond Halley V 75°35’S 26°34’W
GFF-051 Western Bransfield Strait 63°27’S/62°10’W
GFF-052 Western Shore of Admiralty Bay 62°11’S/58°27’W
GFF-053 Pitcairn island (include Oeno)
GFF-054 Henderson island
GFF-055 Ducie island
GFF-056 Gordano Valley Avon
GFF-057 Barton Hills Bedfordshire
GFF-058 Chiltern Hills Bedfordshire
GFF-059 Kings Wood, Heath & Reach Bedfordshire
GFF-060 Knocking Hoe Bedfordshire
GFF-061 The Lodge Bedfordshire
GFF-062 Leigh Woods Bristol
GFF-063 Church Wood Buckinghamshire
GFF-064 Barnack Hills & Hoes Cambridgeshire
GFF-065 Bedford Purlieus Cambridgeshire
GFF-066 Castor Hanglands Cambridgeshire
GFF-067 Chippenham Fen Cambridgeshire
GFF-068 Fowlemere Cambridgeshire
GFF-069 Holme Fen Cambridgeshire
GFF-070 Monks Woods Cambridgeshire
GFF-071 Nene Washes Cambridgeshire
GFF-072 Ouse Washes Cambridgeshire
GFF-073 Upwood Meadows Cambridgeshire
GFF-074 Wicken Fen Cambridgeshire
GFF-075 Woddwalton Fen Cambridgeshire
GFF-076 Gayton Sands Cheshire
GFF-077 Wybunbury Moss Cheshire
GFF-078 Golitha Falls Cornwall
GFF-079 Goss Moor Cornwall
GFF-080 The Lizard Cornwall
GFF-081 Hayle Estuary Cornwall
GFF-082 Marazion Marsh Cornwall
GFF-083 Campfield marsh Cumbria
GFF-084 Finglandrigg Woods Cumbria
GFF-085 Haweswater Cumbria
GFF-086 Hodbarrow Cumbria
GFF-087 Hutton Roof Crags Cumbria
GFF-088 Moor House Upper Teesdale (Cumbria)
GFF-089 St Bees Head Cumbria
GFF-090 Biggin Dale Derbyshire
GFF-091 Derbyshire Dales Derbyshire
GFF-092 Aylesbeare Common Devon
GFF-093 Chapel Wood Devon
GFF-094 Dawlish Warren Devon
GFF-095 East Dartmoor Woods & Heaths Devon
GFF-096 Exe Estuary Devon
GFF-097 Slapton Ley Devon
GFF-098 Arne Dorset
GFF-099 Ballard Down Dorset
GFF-100 Garston Wood Dorset
GFF-101 Holt Heath Dorset
GFF-102 Lodmoor Dorset
GFF-103 Lundy Island Dorset
GFF-104 Radipole lake Dorset
GFF-105 Studland & Godlingston Heath Dorset
GFF-106 Castle Eden Dene Durham
GFF-107 Durham Coast Durham
GFF-108 Bempton Cliffs East Riding Yorkshire
GFF-109 Blacktoft Sands East Riding Yorkshire
GFF-110 Lower Derwent Valley East Riding Yorkshire
GFF-111 Spurn Point East Riding Yorkshire
GFF-112 Fore Wood East Sussex
GFF-113 Stour Estuary Essex
GFF-114 Highnam Woods Gloucestershire
GFF-115 Nagshead Gloucestershire
GFF-116 Rainham Marshes Greater London
GFF-117 Ashford Hangers Hampshire
GFF-118 Ashford Hill Hampshire
GFF-119 Beacon Hill Hampshire
GFF-120 Butser Hill Hampshire
GFF-121 Castle Bottom Hampshire
GFF-122 Kingston Great Common Hampshire
GFF-123 Langstone Harbour Hampshire
GFF-124 Martin Down Hampshire
GFF-125 North Solent Hampshire
GFF-126 Old Winchester Hill Hampshire
GFF-127 Tichhfield Haven Hampshire
GFF-128 Rye Meads Hertfordshire
GFF-129 Brading Marshes Isle of White
GFF-130 Barnsfield Pit Kent
GFF-131 Blean Woods Kent
GFF-132 Cliffe Pools Kent
GFF-133 Dungeness Kent
GFF-134 Elmley Marshes Kent
GFF-135 Hamstreet Woods Kent
GFF-136 Lydden & Tempell Ewell Downs Kent
GFF-137 Nor Marsh & Motney Hill Kent
GFF-138 Northward Hill Kent
GFF-139 Stodmarsh Kent
GFF-140 Tudeley Woods Kent
GFF-141 Wye Downs Kent
GFF-142 Gait Barrows Lancashire
GFF-143 Leighton Moss Lancashire
GFF-144 Morecambe bay Lancashire
GFF-145 Ribble Estaury Lancashire
GFF-146 Frampton Marsh Lincolnshire
GFF-147 Freiston Shore Lincolnshire
GFF-148 Gibralter Point (The Wash) Lincolnshire
GFF-149 Saltfleetby-Theddlethorpe Dunes Lincolnshire
GFF-150 Marshside Merseyside
GFF-151 Ainsdale Sand Dunes Merseyside
GFF-152 Ant Broads & Marshes Norfolk
GFF-153 Brettenham Heath Norfolk
GFF-154 Blakeney Point Norfolk
GFF-155 Bure Marshes Norfolk
GFF-156 Berney Marshes & Breydon Water Norfolk
GFF-157 Calthorpe Broad Norfolk
GFF-158 Dersingham Bog Norfolk
GFF-159 Foxley Wood Norfolk
GFF-160 Great Yarmoth Little terns Norfolk
GFF-161 Holkham Norfolk
GFF-162 Redgrave & Lopham Fen Norfolk
GFF-163 Roydon Common Norfolk
GFF-164 Scolt Head Island Norfolk
GFF-165 Snettisham Norfolk
GFF-166 Strumpshaw Fen Norfolk
GFF-167 Swanton Novers Norfolk
GFF-168 Tichwell Marsh Norfolk
GFF-169 Weeting Heath Norfolk
GFF-170 Winterton Dunes Norfolk
GFF-171 Farne Islands Northumberland
GFF-172 Lindisfarne (Holy Island) Northumberland
GFF-173 Duncombe Park North Yorkshire
GFF-174 Ingleborough North Yorkshire
GFF-175 Aston Rowant Oxfordshire
GFF-176 Otmoor Oxfordshire
GFF-177 Aqualate Mere Shropshire
GFF-178 Fens, Whixall & Bettisfield Mosses Shropshire
GFF-179 Stiperstones Shropshire
GFF-180 Wyre Forest Shropshire
GFF-181 Brigwater Bay Somerset
GFF-182 Dunkery & Horner Woods Somerset
GFF-183 Ebbor Gorge Somerset
GFF-184 Grelake Somerset
GFF-185 Ham Wall Somerset
GFF-186 Hardington Moor Somerset
GFF-187 Huntspill River Somerset
GFF-188 Rodney Stoke Somerset
GFF-189 Shapwick Heath Somerset
GFF-190 Somerset levels Somerset
GFF-191 Westhay Moor Somerset
GFF-192 West Sedgemoor Somerset
GFF-193 Old Moor Dearne Valley South Yorkshire
GFF-194 Coombes & Churnet Staffordshire
GFF-195 Benacre broad Suffolk
GFF-196 Bradfield Woods Suffolk
GFF-197 Cavenham Heath Suffolk
GFF-198 Orfordness/Havergate island Suffolk
GFF-199 Lakenheath Fen Suffolk
GFF-200 Minsmere Suffolk
GFF-201 North Warren Suffolk
GFF-202 Thetford Heath Suffolk
GFF-203 Walberswick Suffolk
GFF-204 Westleton Heath Suffolk
GFF-205 Wolves Wood Suffolk
GFF-206 Farnham Heath Surrey
GFF-207 Thursley Surrey
GFF-208 Teesmouth Teeside
GFF-209 Sandwell Valley West Midlands
GFF-210 Sutton Park West Midlands
GFF-211 Wrens nest West Midlands
GFF-212 Kingley Vales West Sussex
GFF-213 Pulborough Brookes West Sussex
GFF-214 Fairburn Ings West Yorkshire
GFF-215 Bredon Hill Worcestershire
GFF-216 Bolton Ings Dearne Valley South Yorkshire
GFF-217 Boyton Marshes Suffolk
GFF-218 Buckenham Marshes Norfolk
GFF-219 Coquet island Northumberland
GFF-220 Darts Farm Devon
GFF-221 Dingle Marshes Suffolk
GFF-222 Fen Drayton Lakes Cambridgeshire
GFF-223 Geltsdale Cumbria
GFF-224 Gypsey Marsh Dearne Valley South Yorkshire
GFF-225 Parkgate Dee Estuary Cheshire
GFF-226 Saltholme Teeside
GFF-227 Vange Marshes Essex
GFF-228 Wat Tyler Country Park Essex
GFF-229 Surlingham Norfolk
GFF-230 Wombell Ings Dearne Valley South Yorkshire

GMFF (Scotland) Area List


Please contact MM0DFV for information about GMFF